Dr Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti Idola Muslim Mukmin

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Dr Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti BA (Queen's), MA (Oxon), MSt (Oxon), DPhil (Oxon), MSIEPM - also known as Shaykh Afifi - is KFAS Fellow in Islamic Studies at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, and Islamic Centre Lecturer in Islamic Studies at the Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, and is a Fellow of Worcester College, Oxford. He is the first ever Malay to be appointed to such a position in this world famous University.

Dr al-Akiti completed his DPhil in Medieval Arabic Philosophy from Oxford University as a Clarendon Scholar in 2008. His thesis identifies and systematically considers for the first time a group of philosophical writings, called the Madnun corpus, attributed to Islam's greatest theologian, al-Ghazali (d. 505/1111) - his discoveries are based on a painstaking survey of nearly 50 medieval Arabic manuscripts. Besides acquainting scholars with this remarkable new body of source material, his three-volume study presents a critical edition of the most advanced and technical work of this corpus, the manual on metaphysics and natural philosophy called the Major Madnun.

Dr al-Akiti, who comes from Malaysia, is trained as a theologian and philologist in both the Islamic and Western traditions: educated originally at the feet of the ulema of the Muslim world, he subsequently received a First Class degree in Scholastic Philosophy and History of Science from the Queen's University Belfast, where he was awarded various scholarships to read for his Masters and Doctoral degrees at Oxford. His areas of expertise are Islamic theology, philosophy and science.


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Texts By Shaykh Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti

His articles are mostly on Shafii fiqh and very detailed, useful and practical as a learning method, and he is one of those scholars of Islam, who can combine the sciences of Fiqh and Tasawwuf, just as Imam al-Malik (may Allah be well pleased with him!) said:

Whoever studies Tasawwuf and does not study Fiqh will be a heretic. Whoever studies Fiqh and does not study Tasawwuf will be corrupted. Whoever combines the two will attain to the truth.

Shaykh Afifi al-Akiti is a Research Fellow in Islamic Philosophy and Theology at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. He is presently completing his doctoral thesis at Oxford University, on a newly discovered Arabic manuscript of a previously unknown theological work by Imam al-Ghazali. He was born in Malaysia and educated in various madrasas with a long tradition in Shafii fiqh in East Java.

Among his most well known teachers are:

Shaykh Muhammad Yasin al-Fadani,
Shaykh Ibn Mahfuz al-Hajini,
Shaykh Ibn Ashmuni al-Jaruni
and Habib 'Aydarus al-Habshi.

He has translated various works in Malay as well as English; mostly textbooks that make up the curriculum of a Classical Islamic education, including Imam al-Bajuri's commentary on the Jawhara, Imam Nawawi al-Bantani on the Jami'a and his commentary on the Bidaya of Imam al-Ghazali. He has travelled widely, and notwithstanding the specific ijazas from his training, has also received general ijazas (for tabarrukan) from teachers beyond his homeland.


Dr Afifi al-Akiti, Islamic Centre Lecturer in Islamic Studies at the Faculty of Theology and Fellow of Worcester, was appointed as a Privy Councillor to the State of Perak, Malaysia. He received the instrument of appointment (watikah) from the Crown Prince of Perak, Raja Dr Nazrin Shah, at the 171st Conference of the Privy Council on 22 April 2010. One of the main duties of the Council is to advise on the exercise of prerogative powers assigned to its constitutional monarch, the Sultan of Perak, in matters pertaining to the Islamic religion and Malay custom, in one of the oldest royal states of Malaysia.
[L1] theology.ox.ac.uk/news
[L2] Syed Jaafar, Muhammad Afifi dilantik ahli majlis MAAIAMP

The present articles:

Al-Maqal al-Ma'thur fi al-Qawl al-Mashhur
Contaminated Animal Feed
Defending the Transgressed: Mudafi' al-Mazlum
Hisab & Ru'ya or Matla' al-Budur (moonsighting)
`Inan al-Bayan fi Nisf Sha'ban
Kissing the Thumbs, etc. during Adhan?
Lobsters and "Sea" Crabs
Man Eating Man-Eating Sharks?
On the Risala and the Appendices of al-Umm
Placenta and Umbilical Cord Tahiratun
Riba & Investing in Shares
Taghyir al-Niyya from Fasting
Tajaddud Nikah on account of Wali Hakim?
Tartib al-Nawafil wa-l-Rawatib
The Meaning of Nafs
The `Amal of the Living for the Dead
Tuhfat al-Hidaya fi Takmil al-Tahara
Zakat al-Fitr II: Potato?

Abstract: The Madnûn of al-Ghazâlî:
A Critical Edition of the Unpublished Major Madnûn
with Discussion of His Restricted, Philosophical Corpus
( pdf )

video @ youtube:
The Hidden Treasure of Imam al-Ghazali (several parts)
Shaykh Afifi at a recent interview on Malaysian TV


Riba & Investing in Shares
by M. Afifi al-Akiti

{ Allah permits trade but forbids Riba.}(2:275)

"Riba is of 70 kinds, the least of which
is as bad as a man marrying his mother."
(Related by al-Hakim & Ibn Majah, Nayl al-Awtar,
Subul al-Salam & Majma' al-Zawa'id)

The word Riba literally means 'increment' (ziyadah), grow or increase. Ibn Qudama defines the Shari'ah term as "an increment in certain things." (Al-Mughni, vol. 4, pg. 125)

In other words, Riba occurs either in a thing, commodity or money. Riba is unlawful on the basis of the Qur'an, Sunnah and Ijma'.

Such detailed elaboration of Riba have been carefully developed by the Fuqaha' in their legal compendiums. There is among them no disagreement on the categorical prohibition of Riba in both of its general forms of loan and sale, that is money increased (ziyadah) by advancing loans by a usurer or by simply in the direct exchange (barter) of commodities.

In the legal terminology of the Shari'ah, Riba has been defined as "an increment, which, in an exchange or sale of a commodity, accumulates to the owner or lender without giving in return an equivalent countervalue or recompense ('Iwad) to the other party."
(Al-Mabsut, vol. 7, pg. 109)

In the Shari'ah, Riba is of two types (although the Shafi'i scholars have classified it into tree types), the first (riba al-fadl) being usurious gain in selling which is an agreement for a specific recompense ('iwad) whose equivalence to the merchandise is unknown according to the standards of the law at the time of the transaction, or in which the exchange of the two properties transacted is delayed, or one of them is delayed.

The second type (riba al-nasi'ah) concerns loans, and consists of any loan by which the lender obtains some benefit. It appears to our Fuqaha' as a clear, unambiguous, definite and crystallised form of Riba.
(Mughni al-Muhtaj, vol. 2, pg. 21 & Radd al-Mukhtar, vol. 4, pg. 184)

Riba al-Nasi'ah creates profit, whether it is borrowed by a producer or by a consumer. This was the well-known category of Riba practised by the Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic people). This gives it an independent position, a definite, distinct and manifest status, different from that of Riba al-Fadl.

Ulama' have come to a verdict regarding the Riba in banks. In one of the legal compendiums, they declared:

"An interest transaction in banks is classified as Riba al-Nasi'ah. This can occur in two ways, when someone deposits their valuable or when someone borrows money (al-qard) for a period of time and incurs interest either way. Therefore its unlawfulness is the same as the prohibition of Riba and this sin is the same as the sin of involving in Riba."
(Al-Fiqh ala al-Madhahib al-Arba'ah, vol. 2, pg. 247)

With interest-bearing capital, money begets money and self-generating capital appears in its pure form, that is Riba al-Nasi'ah. Interest-bearing capital has existed throughout history. Even according to Aristotle, it is an unnatural act:

"Money-making then is of two kinds: one which is necessary and acceptable, which we may call administrative; the other, the commercial, which depends on exchange is justly regarded with disapproval, since it arises not from nature but from one's dealings with each other. Very much disliked also is the practise of charging interest; and the dislike is fully justified for interest is a yield arising out of money itself, not a product of that for which money was provided. Money was intended to be a means of exchange, interest represents an increase in the money itself. We speak of it as a yield, as of a crop or a litter; for each animal produces its like and interest is money produced out of money. Hence of all ways of getting wealth, this is the most contrary to nature."
(Aristotle, The Politics, tr. Sinclair, pg. 46, Penguin)

According to Aristotle, the payment of interest for a loan of money capital is an unnatural act. But for the Muslim Fuqaha', the concept of Riba is broader in scope than the Aristotelian concept of interest since the concept of Riba covers not only increment (ziyadah) of the moneylender's capital, but also increases created in speculative sales of commodities and in usurious commercial transactions and many agricultural practices.

According to our Fuqaha', Riba is, of its very nature an invalid exchange, because one party, a rich moneylender receives an increase in the form of interest without giving to the other party, a needy borrower, an equivalent return. And this unearned income, without a corresponding productive economic activity or work, is the root of injustice and exploitation because it enriches the class of moneylenders and usurious who accumulate wealth by impoverishing those who are forced to borrow money or commodities from them for mere consumption of basic necessities.

Muslim scholars had asserted that currency should have a fixed or at least a stable value. In the past, they strongly warned that if currency is subjected to trading rather than using it as a means of a medium of exchange, it will be exposed to speculative buying and selling which will fluctuate the value of currency. This in turn will cause more problems to the world economy such as inflation than there are benefits. For instance, food prices will rise and this will result in a food shortage to the more deprived section of the world's community.
(Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Qiyas, pg. 114; al-Fiqh ala al-Madhahib al-Arba'ah, vol. 2, pg. 246 & Durr al-Mukhtar, vol. 4, pg. 189)

Investments in Shares:

Regarding shares and stock market investments, Ulama' have classified this under the category of Awraq al-Naqdiyyah. Basically this is something, which is allowed, with certain conditions and it is also subjected to Zakah payment, provided that it fulfils the Nisab and Hawl and its Nisbah is 2.5% of its value.

"Shares is defined as, one of the equal parts into which the capital of a company is divided, entitling the holder of the share to a proportion of the profits. […] Dealing in shares is permissible in the Shari'ah."
(Fiqh al-Islam Wa Adillatuh, vol. 2, pg. 774)

Concerning investments, Shaykh Syed Mutawalli ad-Darsh says:

"Money in Islam has a role to play. It should not be kept away, hoarded in a vault or safe but should circulate to allow people to make use of it's benefits. That is why the books of Fiqh say that the guardian of an orphan must invest that inheritance in a good manner so that Zakah would not deplete the wealth of the child.

You can buy shares in any company, which is offering good services to the community, and companies, which do not pursue unlawful trade. For example, we are not allowed to buy into the banking sector because it is ridden with interest. We are not allowed to buy shares into breweries because they are producing something, which is Haram. We are not permitted to buy shares in chemical companies, which produce products, which damage people and the environment. But companies, which are good, pose no problem.

[…] There is no harm in investing in the stock exchange, provided the above considerations are kept in mind.

Muslims can invest in shares in BT, in water, in gas and in so many other things which are services to the community and which is not directed towards things which are not islamically-acceptable and that should be the general guide for investments by the Muslim community."

May this be of benefit.

And the last of our prayers,

{ Glory to your Lord, the Lord of Honour & Power! He is better from what they ascribe to Him! Peace be upon the Messengers! Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. }

M. Afifi al-Akiti.

Belfast, 3 May 1997;
from: www.iol.ie


Dengan nama Allah, Kayakanlah sekalian umat Kekasihmu, Muhammad, dengan para ilmuwan dan Ulama’…

Allahamdulillah, semalam, penulis berkesempatan untuk bertemu seorang tokoh ilmuwan Islam tersohor, Sheikh Dr M. Afifi Al-Akiti di Anjung Rahmat, Gombak.

Untuk pengetahuan para pembaca sekalian, yang masih lagi belum mengenali beliau, Dr M. Afifi Al-Akiti merupakan rakyat Malaysia dan Melayu-Islam pertama yang menjawat jawatan pensyarah di university tersohor dunia, Universiti Oxford. Beliau bertugas sebagai pensyarah pengajian Islam di Pusat Oxford bagi pengajian Islam. Di fahamkan, sejak daripada usia mudanya beliau telah mendapat pendidikan di sebuah madrasah di Indonesia, sebelum meneruskan pengajian beliau ke United Kingdom.Beliau juga terkenal dengan sikap bersongkoknya, walaupun dilapangan oxford!

Dengan usia yang masih lagi muda, 32 tahun, sekilas pandang, perwatakan dan keperibadian beliau jelas menunjukkan kematangan ilmuwan Islam sebenar. Sikap zuhud beliau, memberi impak yang cukup mendalam kepada penulis. Ditemani oleh Presiden ABIM, Yusry Mohamed, yang menggelarkan beliau “sheikh”, beliau kelihatan kurang selesa dengan gelaran tersebut, kerana merasakan gelaran itu terlampau tinggi darjatnya kepadanya. “I prefer you call me Afifi, or Dr Afifi….” Kata seorang ilmuwan zuhud yang telahpun mengeluarkan sebuah fatwa pada ketika usianya di pengakhiran 20an.

Setelah selesai majlis minum teh yang diadakan didalam keadaan serba ringkas, kami bersama-sama Dr Afifi mengerjakan Solat Fardhu Maghrib di bilik solat yang telah disediakan. Setelah selesai bersolat, Dr Afifi sempat menyampaikan pesanan dan tazkirah (didalam bentuk usrah) kepada kami semua berkenaan dengan konsep syukur kepada Allah.”ingatlah, Allah akan dekat pada kamu jika kamu dekat kepadanya”, masyaallah..kata-kata itu sungguh memberi kesan yang amat mendalam kepada diri penulis…

Setelah selesai majlis tazkirah tersebut, kami mengerjakan solat Isya’, diikuti dengan majlis selawat dan bersalaman.Sebelum beliau tinggalkan kami, sempat lagi beliau berpesan.. “sesungguhnya kedudukan guru itu adalah tinggi darjatnya seperti ibu bapa kamu, maka hari ini saya adalah guru kamu, dan saya berperasaan seperti meninggalkan anak-anak saya, dan sekalian kamu didalam bulatan ini adalah saudara-saudara kamu…”, katanya kepada barisan anak-anak muda PKPIM, dan juga beberapa wakil daripada NGO seperti TERAS pengupayaan Melayu yang diwakili oleh saudara Wan Faysal atau lebih dikenali sebagai sosialis kanan di arena blog.Sedikit memori mencuit hati, apabila melihatkan ada sahabat-sahabat yang mahu bersalaman dan mencium tangan beliau, dengan pantas, beliau menarik tangannya, sambil menguntum senyum mengucapkan "masyaallah, dan alhamdulillah.."...renung-renungkan...

Walaupun kedatangan Dr Afifi hanya seketika, bermula daripada sebelum Maghrib, sehingga selepas selesai menunaikan solat Isya’, namun nasihat, dan sifat keperibadian beliau telah memberi kesan yang maha mendalam kepada diri penulis.Terdetik juga rasa rindu walaupun baru semalam bertemu….

Seharusnya, tokoh sebeginilah yang harus ditonjolkan oleh arus media perdana sebagai tanda sokongan kepada para ilmuwan islam yang semakin pupus bilangannya hari ini. Namun, apa yang cukup menggelisahkan penulis, masyarakat Islam dan media perdana hari ini lebih selesa menonjolkan artis-artis (perkahwinan mawi??),dan hiburan yang tidak membawa faedah, melebihi daripada menyanjunjungi budaya ilmu….

Semoga Allah mengurniakan lebih ramai tokoh ilmuwan Islam seperti beliau…

Penyanjung Ilmuwan,

Ibn Qadir,
Ahli PKPIM http://seruankebangkitan.blogspot.com/2008/12/sepetang-


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